Tuesday, August 25, 2020
Question: Talk about the Public Versus Private Education in Primary. Answer: Presentation Tuition based schools are the autonomous schools that are not helped by the administration and are supported absolutely by the understudies. There are some tuition based schools, where an understudy may gain admittance to training liberated from cost, however that for the most part rely upon the scholarly greatness of the individual understudies (Ruban 2012). In this paper a writing survey has been given investigating about various tuition based schools over the world and why the Emirati families decide to send their kids to non-public schools. As indicated by Ball (2017) government schools don't give extraordinary offices to the understudies regarding instruction. Government schools in some cases don't have legitimate research facility offices for the science understudies. Since, government needs to finance the whole spending for the school; all the perspectives identified with the foundation and propelled offices probably won't be tended to. Since government need to help countless schools it turns out to be hard for them to arrive at the flawlessness. Besides, government schools give training to various classes of individuals independent of the financial status of the understudies (Klugman 2012). Understudies originating from wealthier families probably won't think that its appropriate to stir up with the understudies originating from low financial foundation, which drives the guardians to concede their kids in the non-public schools. Every single parent need that their kids to get the best, including achievement, wellbeing, human services and love. The greater part of these boundaries depend on great training. According to the department of Labor insights, graduation rate is conversely corresponding to the homicide and the ambushes rate. Training can be seen both from government supported foundations or private establishments. These days the instruction isn't modest. As per the reports by Hvidman and Andersen (2013) open advanced degree costs about $100, 00 for an understudy who are probably going to go to government funded schools. Regardless of the expanding measure of budgetary weight, individuals are overwhelming towards the tuition based schools with the expectation of getting propelled instruction. Iqbal (2012) has contended that there isn't a lot of contrast between the scholarly degrees of the administration schools and the tuition based schools and has additionally refered to models that the eight evaluation math and the fourth grade readings were only a wash. As indicated by Klugman (2012) the greater part of the impacts of the tuition based school training are affected by the family choices and inspirations. As indicated by Lubienski and Lubienski (2013) groups of the understudies concentrating in the state funded schools can at any rate question the specialists in regards to the authorizing and the accreditation of the educators, as the greater part of the instructors are named based on a degree of showing quality, while in the tuition based schools there are no such guidelines with respect to the arrangement of the instructors (Lubienski and Lubienski 2013). Tuition based schools in the UAE The vast majority of the Emirati schools are presented with Islamic qualities other than the western culture. Emirati families can need their youngster to be familiar with different societies and in this way decide to send their kids to non-public schools (Hvidman and Andersen 2013). The general, financial status of the greater part of the Emirati families are very acceptable, which drives them to pick tuition based schools with better offices. Some tuition based schools have a lot of cutting edge extracurricular offices like arrangement for games, for example, soccer, container balls, and move classes, swimming classes, intuitive clubs and then some. It very well may be effortlessly said that state funded schools won't have the option to give their understudies with such a changed number of offices other than considers (Mazawi 2017). The Emiratis frequently face issues with the English language as in a large portion of the Islamic schools, Arabic is utilized as the mode of guidance and the educational program is for the most part dependent on the Islamic qualities (Mazawi 2017). Since, English is an acknowledged language everywhere throughout the world and is the mechanism of guidance for all the official work, information on this language is important. As per R uban (2012) the vast majority of the Emirati schools are unequipped for giving legitimate English training. Thus, this can be one of the significant components which drive the Emirati families towards tuition based schools. As per Mazawi (2017) non-public schools in Abu Dhabi had outflanked the administration schools in a few angles. As per the reports, tuition based school guardians have a higher perspective about the school quality than the state funded school guardians, as far as school atmosphere, understudy learning and school-parent connections. As indicated by the investigation directed by Mckinnon et al. (2013) the intellectual accomplishment scores of the understudies in examination with the understudies from the state funded schools have been demonstrated to be higher. As far as math and science subject the accomplishment advantage is seen as higher in the non-public schools in UAE. As per the investigation directed by Mckinnon et al. (2013) the intellectual accomplishment scores of the understudies in examination with the understudies from the government funded schools have been demonstrated to be higher. As far as math and science subject the accomplishment advantage is seen as higher in the non-public schools in UAE. The national measurements of UAE shows that non-public schools in UAE have expanded from 168 to 473 since 1982 to 2011(Mazawi 2017). Reports show that over the most recent five years the quantity of understudies in the non-public schools has expanded radically. As per Mckinnon et al. (2013) the two factors that are driving the Emirati guardians to concede their wards in tuition based schools can be recorded as The impact of the school feeling According to the guardians criticism, the non-public school atmospheres are a lot more advantageous than that of the administration schools as the guardians give a lot of cash as the education costs. Concentrate on the science subjects-Private schools by and large follow a global educational plan that is acknowledged worldwide and for the most part stress on the instructional method of science educating. Then again the state funded schools are basically founded on Islamic lessons and ideals and spotlight less on science subjects (Mckinnon et al. 2013). End It can't be said that administration schools are not fit for giving legitimate instruction to the understudies, as scholarly exhibitions rely on the value of a persona and not on the kind of the school. It tends to be certainly said that tuition based school take into account the general improvement of the kid separated from the investigations. References Ball, S.J., 2007.Education plc: Understanding private division cooperation in open part training. Routledge. Hvidman, U. what's more, Andersen, S.C., 2013. Effect of execution the executives out in the open and private organizations.Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory,24(1), pp.35-58. Iqbal, M., 2012. Open versus private auxiliary schools: A subjective comparison.Journal of Research and Reflections in Education,6(1), pp.40-49. Klugman, J., 2012. How asset imbalances among secondary schools recreate class favorable circumstances in school destinations.Research in Higher Education,53(8), pp.803-830. Lubienski, C.A. furthermore, Lubienski, S.T., 2013.The government funded school advantage: Why state funded schools beat non-public schools. College of Chicago Press. Mazawi, A. ed., 2017.World Yearbook of Education 2010: Education and the Arab'World': Political Projects, Struggles, and Geometries of Power. Routledge. McKinnon, M., Barza, L. furthermore, Moussa-Inaty, J., 2013. Open versus private schooling in essential science: The instance of Abu Dhabi schools.International Journal of Educational Research,62, pp.51-61. Ruban, N.A.B.H., 2012. Joined Arab Emirates.TIMSS 2011 Encyclopedia, p.961.
Saturday, August 22, 2020
Impact Of Television On Family Relationships - Essay Example At the point when the TV was first presented in the market, it was in the homes of the rich and were kept in bars, the last being where it contacted more individuals. Gradually there was a segment move in the TV seeing populace. The center pay and low-pay individuals began to possess or tried to claim a TV brought about characterizing the idea of the projects appeared. The program quality was worse than the secondary school dramaÃ¢â¬â¢s beforehand, yet after the move in the demography of the crowd, there was a flood of projects which indicated the truth of life. Overwhelming feelings and issues sometimes fell short for the family room seeing as they must be founded on the gathering in the lounge. The program content was investigated for reasonableness for family viewership, the creation spending plans and plats were tidied up to suit the developing interest for assortment in TV diversion. TV didn't possess an exceptional spot in the lounge rooms of the families in America at the sa me time. The creation limits were restricted and the program content was all the while creating, national signs were as yet discussed in the early many years of TV. In any case, in the event that we investigate what caused a gigantic acknowledgment among the open that it is a basic in the lounge. The magazine assessment helped in the jump of TV sets into the front room of families across America. All through the early long stretches of TV development, it was accentuated altogether that TV assists with improving family connections by different sources. It was accepted to bring the individuals from the family together. In the advertisements and in the photos in magazines, a family sitting in front of the TV joyfully as an adoring and holding time was anticipated. This wonder was additionally upgraded by the time of increased birth rates and the suburbanization of American families. At the point when families abandon their companions and more distant family, TV was situated as a signif icant device to fortify the current family ties. Additionally, it
Saturday, August 8, 2020
What Do You Do When Fiction Fails Sometimes, when it comes to fiction, I. Just. Cant. Which is weird because Id say that Im a heavy-on-the-fiction girl. But occasionally its like Im allergic to it. Im reading a book right now that is a combination of essays and short stories, and when I get to the short stories eck, ugh, no. Onto the next essay, please and thank you. I can kind of predict these periods of time, usually its when something specific is happening, but occasionally its random. Ill be lying in bed, trying to get into a perfectly good story, and NOPE. Then I try with a non-fiction book and ten pages later I realize Im jiving and all is good. Helene Hanff once wrote to a friend, anything he liked ill (sic) like except if its fiction. i (sic) never can get interested in things that didnt happen to people who never lived. This pretty much sums up what happens in my brain when Im going through these phases. But it didnt happen. Ill say to myself. Why am I reading about something that didnt happen? Again, not the norm for me, and I absolutely do think there is incredibly useful lessons to learn through fiction. However, in these phases that I go through, I want to know what happened to real people, and when it happened to them what did they do? I put these thoughts to other readers, recently, and a few understood what I meant, but mostly these were people who prefer non-fiction over fiction anyway. So I ask you are there any of you out there who go through phases with this? And if not, those of you who prefer non-fiction to fictionâ¦ why? What is it about fiction that just doesnt do it for you? _________________________ Sign up for our newsletter to have the best of Book Riot delivered straight to your inbox every week. No spam. We promise. To keep up with Book Riot on a daily basis, follow us on Twitter, like us on Facebook, , and subscribe to the Book Riot podcast in iTunes or via RSS. So much bookish goodnessall day, every day.
Saturday, May 23, 2020
Sample details Pages: 2 Words: 552 Downloads: 10 Date added: 2018/12/18 Category Science Essay Type Research paper Level High school Did you like this example? The following is an article authored by one contributor of space.com, Charles Q. Choi on November 14, 2017. In his article, Charles explores and reports what he considers as facts about the planet Pluto. DonÃ¢â¬â¢t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Dwarf Planet Pluto: Facts about the Icy Former Planet" essay for you Create order He starts by giving necessary information about the size, distance from the sun and other planets, among several different characteristics of Pluto. Charles then goes ahead to talk about the size of the planet and how it has stirred debates and attracted a lot of controversy both to the general public and the scientific community. For instance, the author first talks about how planet Pluto was initially thought to be the ninth planet and the most distant from the sun. Choi then comes on to state that more information had been discovered including the planets actual size, which was slightly wider than earlier thought, and a variety of the surface features on the planet. This information, he claims, was discovered and reported by NASA in 2015. The information written by Charles is based on a recent finding by the most proficient and skilled scientists in the world, this means that it is mostly factual although sometimes contradictive and unsure. A good example is his version of the planets formation and origin which is based on a hypothesis. A lot of theories for the same exist, but he sticks to his and believes it is accurate since it was reported by NASA. He has a perfect title for this article since most of the detailed information revolves around the title, though a bit fancy, it still fits1 the article. The facts he writes about are accurate and up-to-date according to the 2017 NASA reports. According to the reports from their research, Pluto is extremely cold with temperatures ranging from -375 to 400 degrees Fahrenheit, and because of its far distance, little information is known about, they rely on pictures taken their New Horizon spacecraft. The following is a report from a similar source as Charles. Pluto remained undiscovered until the year 1930 while it orbited in the frozen and dim outlands of the solar system. Early reports from scientists had put it that the planet Plutos size was almost like that of Earth. Further and detailed research, however, proved that Pluto is only about 1473 miles, which is an equivalent of 2370 kilometers in diameter. It has a sizeable heart-shaped feature that was unofficially named Tombaugh Regio, a name obtained from that of Plutos discoverer Clyde Tombaugh (Tate). Close photos of the heart-shaped element reveal something that seems to be a craterless plain called Sputnik Planum, a name that was also given by scientists after the first-ever space satellite. Astronauts and scientists estimate that the plain, which is mostly made of frozen carbon monoxide, is less than a hundred million years old. There are visible pits and mounds on the plain and also appears to be sub-divided into several irregular polygons. The arrival of New Horizons towards Pluto revealed more detailed information that included, Pluto has a more complex surface that is varied and has more bright patches as well as dark patches. It is covered or surrounded by a thin atmosphere comprising of carbon monoxide, methane, and nitrogen. Changes in the distance of the planet Pluto from the sun determine the thickness of its atmosphere. Work cited Tate, Karl. A Dwarf Planet Oddity. SPACE.com (2012).
Tuesday, May 12, 2020
This essay will summarize and reflect upon 5 individuals who were born into, and grew up in the United States of America under slavery. Lucinda Davis, Charity Anderson, Walter Calloway, Fountain Hughes and Richard Toley each have a compelling story to tell about the time when black Americans were not looked at as citizens and were not free to make decisions that were afforded to white Americans. Although their stories are brief and do not reflect all of the daily hardships that were faced by slaves during that time in our NationÃ¢â¬â¢s history, they are, nonetheless, powerful in their message. Fearing above all else a beating that would result from a perceived act of disrespect, the fact that each of these individuals survived is an exampleÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Mr. Calloway, similar to Charity Anderson, indicates a real respect for his master in that he was treated fairly, fed well and allowed to pray back in the bushes even though the work was hard and punishment was n ot uncommon. It seems to be a running theme that most of these narratives signify a mutual respect for their owners for not being worse than they could have been to the slaves. (Rawick) This sentiment is eluded by Richard Toler when he talks of not ever being mistreated by his master and even going so far as to tell his overseers that, Ã¢â¬Å" if they whipped him, heÃ¢â¬â¢d kill Ã¢â¬Ëem.Ã¢â¬ (Rawick) This was apparently not the norm for the rest of the slaves on this farm near Lynchburg, Virginia. Mr. Toler talks a great deal about other slaves being beaten and brutally tortured and abused. According to Mr. Toler, the slave owners did try to take care of their slaves by giving medicine and feeding them well as to protect their property. It was more of a financial investment than an act of kindness however and he talks of never having any good times until he was a freed slave. Lastly we hear from Fountain Hughes; a slave in Charlottesville, Virginia who claims to be the grandson of the slave gardener of Thomas Jefferson. Mr. Hughes was born into slavery with his brother and mother. He worked on a farm and had not home; he talks of sleeping on a wooded pallet on worse, a dirt
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Mrs. Coulter whispered to the shadow beside her: Ã¢â¬Å"Look how he hides, Metatron! He creeps through the dark like a ratÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ They stood on a ledge high up in the great cavern, watching Lord Asriel and the snow leopard make their careful way down, a long way below. Ã¢â¬Å"I could strike him now,Ã¢â¬ the shadow whispered. We will write a custom essay sample on The Amber Spyglass Chapter 31 AuthorityÃ¢â¬â¢s End or any similar topic only for you Order Now Ã¢â¬Å"Yes, of course you could,Ã¢â¬ she whispered back, leaning close; Ã¢â¬Å"but I want to see his face, dear Metatron; I want him to know IÃ¢â¬â¢ve betrayed him. Come, letÃ¢â¬â¢s follow and catch himÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ The Dust fall shone like a great pillar of faint light as it descended smoothly and never-endingly into the gulf. Mrs. Coulter had no attention to spare for it, because the shadow beside her was trembling with desire, and she had to keep him by her side, under what control she could manage. They moved down, silent, following Lord Asriel. The farther down they climbed, the more she felt a great weariness fall over her. Ã¢â¬Å"What? What?Ã¢â¬ whispered the shadow, feeling her emotions, and suspicious at once. Ã¢â¬Å"I was thinking,Ã¢â¬ she said with a sweet malice, Ã¢â¬Å"how glad I am that the child will never grow up to love and be loved. I thought I loved her when she was a baby; but now Ã¢â¬â Ã¢â¬Å" Ã¢â¬Å"There was regret,Ã¢â¬ the shadow said, Ã¢â¬Å"in your heart there was regret that you will not see her grow up.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Oh, Metatron, how long it is since you were a man! Can you really not tell what it is IÃ¢â¬â¢m regretting? ItÃ¢â¬â¢s not her coming of age, but mine. How bitterly I regret that I didnÃ¢â¬â¢t know of you in my own girlhood; how passionately I would have devoted myself to youÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ She leaned toward the shadow, as if she couldnÃ¢â¬â¢t control the impulses of her own body, and the shadow hungrily sniffed and seemed to gulp at the scent of her flesh. They were moving laboriously over the tumbled and broken rocks toward the foot of the slope. The farther down they went, the more the Dust light gave everything a nimbus of golden mist. Mrs. Coulter kept reaching for where his hand might have been if the shadow had been a human companion, and then seemed to recollect herself, and whispered: Ã¢â¬Å"Keep behind me, Metatron Ã¢â¬â wait here Ã¢â¬â Asriel is suspicious Ã¢â¬â let me lull him first. When heÃ¢â¬â¢s off guard, IÃ¢â¬â¢ll call you. But come as a shadow, in this small form, so he doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t see you Ã¢â¬â otherwise, heÃ¢â¬â¢ll just let the childÃ¢â¬â¢s daemon fly away.Ã¢â¬ The Regent was a being whose profound intellect had had thousands of years to deepen and strengthen itself, and whose knowledge extended over a million universes. Nevertheless, at that moment he was blinded by his twin obsessions: to destroy Lyra and to possess her mother. He nodded and stayed where he was, while the woman and the monkey moved forward as quietly as they could. Lord Asriel was waiting behind a great block of granite, out of sight of the Regent. The snow leopard heard them coming, and Lord Asriel stood up as Mrs. Coulter came around the corner. Everything, every surface, every cubic centimeter of air, was permeated by the falling Dust, which gave a soft clarity to every tiny detail; and in the Dust light Lord Asriel saw that her face was wet with tears, and that she was gritting her teeth so as not to sob. He took her in his arms, and the golden monkey embraced the snow leopardÃ¢â¬â¢s neck and buried his black face in her fur. Ã¢â¬Å"Is Lyra safe? Has she found her daemon?Ã¢â¬ she whispered. Ã¢â¬Å"The ghost of the boyÃ¢â¬â¢s father is protecting both of them.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Dust is beautifulÃ¢â¬ ¦ I never knew.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"What did you tell him?Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"I lied and lied, AsrielÃ¢â¬ ¦ LetÃ¢â¬â¢s not wait too long, I canÃ¢â¬â¢t bear itÃ¢â¬ ¦ We wonÃ¢â¬â¢t live, will we? We wonÃ¢â¬â¢t survive like the ghosts?Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Not if we fall into the abyss. We came here to give Lyra time to find her daemon, and then time to live and grow up. If we take Metatron to extinction, Marisa, sheÃ¢â¬â¢ll have that time, and if we go with him, it doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t matter.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"And Lyra will be safe?Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Yes, yes,Ã¢â¬ he said gently. He kissed her. She felt as soft and light in his arms as she had when Lyra was conceived thirteen years before. She was sobbing quietly. When she could speak, she whispered: Ã¢â¬Å"I told him I was going to betray you, and betray Lyra, and he believed me because I was corrupt and full of wickedness; he looked so deep I felt sure heÃ¢â¬â¢d see the truth. But I lied too well. I was lying with every nerve and fiber and everything IÃ¢â¬â¢d ever doneÃ¢â¬ ¦ I wanted him to find no good in me, and he didnÃ¢â¬â¢t. There is none. But I love Lyra. Where did this love come from? I donÃ¢â¬â¢t know; it came to me like a thief in the night, and now I love her so much my heart is bursting with it. All I could hope was that my crimes were so monstrous that the love was no bigger than a mustard seed in the shadow of them, and I wished IÃ¢â¬â¢d committed even greater ones to hide it more deeply stillÃ¢â¬ ¦ But the mustard seed had taken root and was growing, and the little green shoot was splitting my heart wide open, and I was so afraid heÃ¢â¬â¢d seeÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ She had to stop to gather herself. He stroked her shining hair, all set about with golden Dust, and waited. Ã¢â¬Å"Any moment now heÃ¢â¬â¢ll lose patience,Ã¢â¬ she whispered. Ã¢â¬Å"I told him to make himself small. But heÃ¢â¬â¢s only an angel, after all, even if he was once a man. And we can wrestle with him and bring him to the edge of the gulf, and weÃ¢â¬â¢ll both go down with himÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ He kissed her, saying, Ã¢â¬Å"Yes. Lyra will be safe, and the Kingdom will be powerless against her. Call him now, Marisa, my love.Ã¢â¬ She took a deep breath and let it out in a long, shuddering sigh. Then she smoothed her skirt down over her thighs and tucked the hair back behind her ears. Ã¢â¬Å"Metatron,Ã¢â¬ she called softly. Ã¢â¬Å"ItÃ¢â¬â¢s time.Ã¢â¬ MetatronÃ¢â¬â¢s shadow-cloaked form appeared out of the golden air and took in at once what was happening: the two daemons, crouching and watchful, the woman with the nimbus of Dust, and Lord Asriel Ã¢â¬â Who leapt at him at once, seizing him around the waist, and tried to hurl him to the ground. The angelÃ¢â¬â¢s arms were free, though, and with fists, palms, elbows, knuckles, forearms, he battered Lord AsrielÃ¢â¬â¢s head and body: great pummeling blows that forced the breath from his lungs and rebounded from his ribs, that cracked against his skull and shook his senses. However, his arms encircled the angelÃ¢â¬â¢s wings, cramping them to his side. And a moment later, Mrs. Coulter had leapt up between those pinioned wings and seized MetatronÃ¢â¬â¢s hair. His strength was enormous: it was like holding the mane of a bolting horse. As he shook his head furiously, she was flung this way and that, and she felt the power in the great folded wings as they strained and heaved at the manÃ¢â¬â¢s arms locked so tightly around them. The daemons had seized hold of him, too. Stelmaria had her teeth firmly in his leg, and the golden monkey was tearing at one of the edges of the nearest wing, snapping feathers, ripping at the vanes, and this only roused the angel to greater fury. With a sudden massive effort he flung himself sideways, freeing one wing and crushing Mrs. Coulter against a rock. Mrs. Coulter was stunned for a second, and her hands came loose. At once the angel reared up again, beating his one free wing to fling off the golden monkey; but Lord AsrielÃ¢â¬â¢s arms were firm around him still, and in fact the man had a better grip now there wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t so much to enclose. Lord Asriel set himself to crushing the breath out of Metatron, grinding his ribs together, and trying to ignore the savage blows that were landing on his skull and his neck. But those blows were beginning to tell. And as Lord Asriel tried to keep his footing on the broken rocks, something shattering happened to the back of his head. When he flung himself sideways, Metatron had seized a fist-sized rock, and now he brought it down with brutal force on the point of Lord AsrielÃ¢â¬â¢s skull. The man felt the bones of his head move against each other, and he knew that another blow like that would kill him outright. Dizzy with pain Ã¢â¬â pain that was worse for the pressure of his head against the angelÃ¢â¬â¢s side, he still clung fast, the fingers of his right hand crushing the bones of his left, and stumbled for a footing among the fractured rocks. And as Metatron raised the bloody stone high, a golden-furred shape sprang up like a flame leaping to a treetop, and the monkey sank his teeth into the angelÃ¢â¬â¢s hand. The rock came loose and clattered down toward the edge, and Metatron swept his arm to left and right, trying to dislodge the daemon; but the golden monkey clung with teeth, claws, and tail, and then Mrs. Coulter gathered the great white beating wing to herself and smothered its movement. Metatron was hampered, but he still wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t hurt. Nor was he near the edge of the abyss. And by now Lord Asriel was weakening. He was holding fast to his blood-soaked consciousness, but with every movement a little more was lost. He could feel the edges of the bones grinding together in his skull; he could hear them. His senses were disordered; all he knew was hold tight and drag down. Then Mrs. Coulter found the angelÃ¢â¬â¢s face under her hand, and she dug her fingers deep into his eyes. Metatron cried out. From far off across the great cavern, echoes answered, and his voice bounded from cliff to cliff, doubling and diminishing and causing those distant ghosts to pause in their endless procession and look up. And Stelmaria the snow-leopard daemon, her own consciousness dimming with Lord AsrielÃ¢â¬â¢s, made one last effort and leapt for the angelÃ¢â¬â¢s throat. Metatron fell to his knees. Mrs. Coulter, falling with him, saw the blood-filled eyes of Lord Asriel gaze at her. And she scrambled up, hand over hand, forcing the beating wing aside, and seized the angelÃ¢â¬â¢s hair to wrench back his head and bare his throat for the snow leopardÃ¢â¬â¢s teeth. And now Lord Asriel was dragging him, dragging him backward, feet stumbling and rocks falling, and the golden monkey was leaping down with them, snapping and scratching and tearing, and they were almost there, almost at the edge; but Metatron forced himself up, and with a last effort spread both wings wide Ã¢â¬â a great white canopy that beat down and down and down, again and again and again, and then Mrs. Coulter had fallen away, and Metatron was upright, and the wings beat harder and harder, and he was aloft Ã¢â¬â he was leaving the ground, with Lord Asriel still clinging tight, but weakening fast. The golden monkeyÃ¢â¬â¢s fingers were entwined in the angelÃ¢â¬â¢s hair, and he would never let go Ã¢â¬â But they were over the edge of the abyss. They were rising. And if they flew higher, Lord Asriel would fall, and Metatron would escape. Ã¢â¬Å"Marisa! Marisa!Ã¢â¬ The cry was torn from Lord Asriel, and with the snow leopard beside her, with a roaring in her ears, LyraÃ¢â¬â¢s mother stood and found her footing and leapt with all her heart, to hurl herself against the angel and her daemon and her dying lover, and seize those beating wings, and bear them all down together into the abyss. The cliff-ghasts heard LyraÃ¢â¬â¢s exclamation of dismay, and their flat heads all snapped around at once. Will sprang forward and slashed the knife at the nearest of them. He felt a little kick on his shoulder as Tialys leapt off and landed on the cheek of the biggest, seizing her hair and kicking hard below the jaw before she could throw him off. The creature howled and thrashed as she fell into the mud, and the nearest one looked stupidly at the stump of his arm, and then in horror at his own ankle, which his sliced-off hand had seized as it fell. A second later the knife was in his breast. Will felt the handle jump three or four times with the dying heartbeats, and pulled it out before the cliff-ghast could twist it away in falling. He heard the others cry and shriek in hatred as they fled, and he knew that Lyra was unhurt beside him; but he threw himself down in the mud with only one thing in his mind. Ã¢â¬Å"Tialys! Tialys!Ã¢â¬ he cried, and avoiding the snapping teeth, he hauled the biggest cliff-ghastÃ¢â¬â¢s head aside. Tialys was dead, his spurs deep in her neck. The creature was kicking and biting still, so he cut off her head and rolled it away before lifting the dead Gallivespian clear of the leathery neck. Ã¢â¬Å"Will,Ã¢â¬ said Lyra behind him, Ã¢â¬Å"Will, look at thisÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ She was gazing into the crystal litter. It was unbroken, although the crystal was stained and smeared with mud and the blood from what the cliff-ghasts had been eating before they found it. It lay tilted crazily among the rocks, and inside it Ã¢â¬â Ã¢â¬Å"Oh, Will, heÃ¢â¬â¢s still alive! But Ã¢â¬â the poor thingÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ Will saw her hands pressing against the crystal, trying to reach in to the angel and comfort him; because he was so old, and he was terrified, crying like a baby and cowering away into the lowest corner. Ã¢â¬Å"He must be so old Ã¢â¬â IÃ¢â¬â¢ve never seen anyone suffering like that Ã¢â¬â oh, Will, canÃ¢â¬â¢t we let him out?Ã¢â¬ Will cut through the crystal in one movement and reached in to help the angel out. Demented and powerless, the aged being could only weep and mumble in fear and pain and misery, and he shrank away from what seemed like yet another threat. Ã¢â¬Å"ItÃ¢â¬â¢s all right,Ã¢â¬ Will said, Ã¢â¬Å"we can help you hide, at least. Come on, we wonÃ¢â¬â¢t hurt you.Ã¢â¬ The shaking hand seized his and feebly held on. The old one was uttering a wordless groaning whimper that went on and on, and grinding his teeth, and compulsively plucking at himself with his free hand; but as Lyra reached in, too, to help him out, he tried to smile, and to bow, and his ancient eyes deep in their wrinkles blinked at her with innocent wonder. Between them they helped the ancient of days out of his crystal cell; it wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t hard, for he was as light as paper, and he would have followed them anywhere, having no will of his own, and responding to simple kindness like a flower to the sun. But in the open air there was nothing to stop the wind from damaging him, and to their dismay his form began to loosen and dissolve. Only a few moments later he had vanished completely, and their last impression was of those eyes, blinking in wonder, and a sigh of the most profound and exhausted relief. Then he was gone: a mystery dissolving in mystery. It had all taken less than a minute, and Will turned back at once to the fallen Chevalier. He picked up the little body, cradling it in his palms, and found his tears flowing fast. But Lyra was saying something urgently. Ã¢â¬Å"Will Ã¢â¬â weÃ¢â¬â¢ve got to move Ã¢â¬â weÃ¢â¬â¢ve got to, the Lady can hear those horses coming Ã¢â¬â Ã¢â¬Å" Out of the indigo sky an indigo hawk swooped low, and Lyra cried out and ducked; but Salmakia cried with all her strength, Ã¢â¬Å"No, Lyra! No! Stand high, and hold out your fist!Ã¢â¬ So Lyra held still, supporting one arm with the other, and the blue hawk wheeled and turned and swooped again, to seize her knuckles in sharp claws. On the hawkÃ¢â¬â¢s back sat a gray-haired lady, whose clear-eyed face looked first at Lyra, then at Salmakia clinging to her collar. Ã¢â¬Å"MadameÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ said Salmakia faintly, Ã¢â¬Å"we have doneÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"You have done all you need. Now we are here,Ã¢â¬ said Madame Oxentiel, and twitched the reins. At once the hawk screamed three times, so loud that LyraÃ¢â¬â¢s head rang. In response there darted from the sky first one, then two and three and more, then hundreds of brilliant warrior-bearing dragonflies, all skimming so fast it seemed they were bound to crash into one another; but the reflexes of the insects and the skills of their riders were so acute that instead, they seemed to weave a tapestry of swift and silent needle-bright color over and around the children. Ã¢â¬Å"Lyra,Ã¢â¬ said the lady on the hawk, Ã¢â¬Å"and Will: follow us now, and we shall take you to your daemons.Ã¢â¬ As the hawk spread its wings and lifted away from one hand, Lyra felt the little weight of Salmakia fall into the other, and knew in a moment that only the LadyÃ¢â¬â¢s strength of mind had kept her alive this long. She cradled her body close, and ran with Will under the cloud of dragonflies, stumbling and falling more than once, but holding the Lady gently against her heart all the time. Ã¢â¬Å"Left! Left!Ã¢â¬ cried the voice from the blue hawk, and in the lightning-riven murk they turned that way; and to their right Will saw a body of men in light gray armor, helmeted, masked, their gray wolf daemons padding in step beside them. A stream of dragonflies made for them at once, and the men faltered. Their guns were no use, and the Gallivespians were among them in a moment, each warrior springing from his insectÃ¢â¬â¢s back, finding a hand, an arm, a bare neck, and plunging his spur in before leaping back to the insect as it wheeled and skimmed past again. They were so quick it was almost impossible to follow. The soldiers turned and fled in panic, their discipline shattered. But then came hoofbeats in a sudden thunder from behind, and the children turned in dismay: those horse-people were bearing down on them at a gallop, and already one or two had nets in their hands, whirling them around over their heads and entrapping the dragonflies, to snap the nets like whips and fling the broken insects aside. Ã¢â¬Å"This way!Ã¢â¬ came the LadyÃ¢â¬â¢s voice, and then she said, Ã¢â¬Å"Duck, now Ã¢â¬â get down low!Ã¢â¬ They did, and felt the earth shake under them. Could that be hoofbeats? Lyra raised her head and wiped the wet hair from her eyes, and saw something quite different from horses. Ã¢â¬Å"Iorek!Ã¢â¬ she cried, joy leaping in her chest. Ã¢â¬Å"Oh, Iorek!Ã¢â¬ Will pulled her down again at once, for not only Iorek Byrnison but a regiment of his bears were making directly for them. Just in time Lyra tucked her head down, and then Iorek bounded over them, roaring orders to his bears to go left, go right, and crush the enemy between them. Lightly, as if his armor weighed no more than his fur, the bear-king spun to face Will and Lyra, who were struggling upright. Ã¢â¬Å"Iorek Ã¢â¬â behind you Ã¢â¬â theyÃ¢â¬â¢ve got nets!Ã¢â¬ Will cried, because the riders were almost on them. Before the bear could move, a riderÃ¢â¬â¢s net hissed through the air, and instantly Iorek was enveloped in steel-strong cobweb. He roared, rearing high, slashing with huge paws at the rider. But the net was strong, and although the horse whinnied and reared back in fear, Iorek couldnÃ¢â¬â¢t fight free of the coils. Ã¢â¬Å"Iorek!Ã¢â¬ Will shouted. Ã¢â¬Å"Keep still! DonÃ¢â¬â¢t move!Ã¢â¬ He scrambled forward through the puddles and over the tussocks as the rider tried to control the horse, and reached Iorek just at the moment when a second rider arrived and another net hissed through the air. But Will kept his head: instead of slashing wildly and getting in more of a tangle, he watched the flow of the net and cut it through in a matter of moments. The second net fell useless to the ground, and then Will leapt at Iorek, feeling with his left hand, cutting with his right. The great bear stood motionless as the boy darted here and there over his vast body, cutting, freeing, clearing the way. Ã¢â¬Å"Now go!Ã¢â¬ Will yelled, leaping clear, and Iorek seemed to explode upward full into the chest of the nearest horse. The rider had raised his scimitar to sweep down at the bearÃ¢â¬â¢s neck, but Iorek Byrnison in his armor weighed nearly two tons, and nothing at that range could withstand him. Horse and rider, both of them smashed and shattered, fell harmlessly aside. Iorek gathered his balance, looked around to see how the land lay, and roared to the children: Ã¢â¬Å"On my back! Now!Ã¢â¬ Lyra leapt up, and Will followed. Pressing the cold iron between their legs, they felt the massive surge of power as Iorek began to move. Behind them, the rest of the bears were engaging with the strange cavalry, helped by the Gallivespians, whose stings enraged the horses. The lady on the blue hawk skimmed low and called: Ã¢â¬Å"Straight ahead now! Among the trees in the valley!Ã¢â¬ Iorek reached the top of a little rise in the ground and paused. Ahead of them the broken ground sloped down toward a grove about a quarter of a mile away. Somewhere beyond that a battery of great guns was firing shell after shell, howling high overhead, and someone was firing flares, too, that burst just under the clouds and drifted down toward the trees, making them blaze with cold green light as a fine target for the guns. And fighting for control of the grove itself were a score or more Specters, being held back by a ragged band of ghosts. As soon as they saw that little group of trees, Lyra and Will both knew that their daemons were in there, and that if they didnÃ¢â¬â¢t reach them soon, they would die. More Specters were arriving there every minute, streaming over the ridge from the right. Will and Lyra could see them very clearly now. An explosion just over the ridge shook the ground and flung stones and clods of earth high into the air. Lyra cried out, and Will had to clutch his chest. Ã¢â¬Å"Hold on,Ã¢â¬ Iorek growled, and began to charge. A flare burst high above, and another and another, drifting slowly downward with a magnesium-bright glare. Another shell burst, closer this time, and they felt the shock of the air and a second or two later the sting of earth and stones on their faces. Iorek didnÃ¢â¬â¢t falter, but they found it hard to hold on. They couldnÃ¢â¬â¢t dig their fingers into his fur Ã¢â¬â they had to grip the armor between their knees, and his back was so broad that both of them kept slipping. Ã¢â¬Å"Look!Ã¢â¬ cried Lyra, pointing up as another shell burst nearby. A dozen witches were making for the flares, carrying thick-leaved, bushy branches, and with them they brushed the glaring lights aside, sweeping them away into the sky beyond. Darkness fell over the grove again, hiding it from the guns. And now the grove was only a few yards away. Will and Lyra both felt their missing selves close by Ã¢â¬â an excitement, a wild hope chilled with fear, because the Specters were thick among the trees and they would have to go in directly among them, and the very sight of them evoked that nauseating weakness at the heart. Ã¢â¬Å"TheyÃ¢â¬â¢re afraid of the knife,Ã¢â¬ said a voice beside them, and the bear-king stopped so suddenly that Will and Lyra tumbled off his back. Ã¢â¬Å"Lee!Ã¢â¬ said Iorek. Ã¢â¬Å"Lee, my comrade, I have never seen this before. You are dead Ã¢â¬â what am I speaking to?Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Iorek, old feller, you donÃ¢â¬â¢t know the half of it. WeÃ¢â¬â¢ll take over now Ã¢â¬â the Specters arenÃ¢â¬â¢t afraid of bears. Lyra, Will Ã¢â¬â come this way, and hold up that knife Ã¢â¬â Ã¢â¬Å" The blue hawk swooped once more to LyraÃ¢â¬â¢s fist, and the gray-haired lady said, Ã¢â¬Å"DonÃ¢â¬â¢t waste a second Ã¢â¬â go in and find your daemons and escape! ThereÃ¢â¬â¢s more danger coming.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Thank you, Lady! Thank you all!Ã¢â¬ said Lyra, and the hawk took wing. Will could see Lee ScoresbyÃ¢â¬â¢s ghost dimly beside them, urging them into the grove, but they had to say farewell to Iorek Byrnison. Ã¢â¬Å"Iorek, my dear, there enÃ¢â¬â¢t words Ã¢â¬â bless you, bless you!Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Thank you, King Iorek,Ã¢â¬ said Will. Ã¢â¬Å"No time. Go. Go!Ã¢â¬ He pushed them away with his armored head. Will plunged after Lee ScoresbyÃ¢â¬â¢s ghost into the undergrowth, slashing to right and left with the knife. The light here was broken and muted, and the shadows were thick, tangled, confusing. Ã¢â¬Å"Keep close,Ã¢â¬ he called to Lyra, and then cried out as a bramble sliced across his cheek. All around them there was movement, noise, and struggle. The shadows moved to and fro like branches in a high wind. They might have been ghosts: both children felt the little dashes of cold they knew so well. Then they heard voices all around: Ã¢â¬Å"This way!Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Over here!Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Keep going Ã¢â¬â weÃ¢â¬â¢re holding them off!Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Not far now!Ã¢â¬ And then came a cry in a voice that Lyra knew and loved better than any other: Ã¢â¬Å"Oh, come quick! Quick, Lyra!Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Pan, darling Ã¢â¬â IÃ¢â¬â¢m here Ã¢â¬â Ã¢â¬Å" She hurled herself into the dark, sobbing and shaking, and Will tore down branches and ivy and slashed at brambles and nettles, while all around them the ghost-voices rose in a clamor of encouragement and warning. But the Specters had found their target, too, and they pressed in through the snagging tangle of bush and briar and root and branch, meeting no more resistance than smoke. A dozen, a score of the pallid malignities seemed to pour in toward the center of the grove, where John ParryÃ¢â¬â¢s ghost marshaled his companions to fight them off. Will and Lyra were both trembling and weak with fear, exhaustion, nausea, and pain, but giving up was inconceivable. Lyra tore at the brambles with her bare hands, Will slashed and hacked to left and right, as around them the combat of the shadowy beings became more and more savage. Ã¢â¬Å"There!Ã¢â¬ cried Lee. Ã¢â¬Å"See Ã¢â¬â¢em? By that big rock Ã¢â¬â Ã¢â¬Å" A wildcat, two wildcats, spitting and hissing and slashing. Both were daemons, and Will felt that if there were time heÃ¢â¬â¢d easily be able to tell which was Pantalaimon; but there wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t time, because a Specter eased horribly out of the nearest patch of shadow and glided toward the daemons. Will leapt over the last obstacle, a fallen tree trunk, and plunged the knife into the unresisting shimmer in the air. He felt his arm go numb, but he clenched his teeth as he was clenching his fingers around the hilt, and the pale form seemed to boil away and melt back into the darkness again. Almost there; and the daemons were mad with fear, because more Specters and still more came pressing through the trees, and only the valiant ghosts were holding them back. Ã¢â¬Å"Can you cut through?Ã¢â¬ said John ParryÃ¢â¬â¢s ghost. Will held up the knife, and had to stop as a racking bout of nausea shook him from head to toe. There was nothing left in his stomach, and the spasm hurt dreadfully. Lyra beside him was in the same state. LeeÃ¢â¬â¢s ghost, seeing why, leapt for the daemons and wrestled with the pale thing that was coming through the rock from behind them. Ã¢â¬Å"Will Ã¢â¬â please Ã¢â¬â Ã¢â¬ said Lyra, gasping. In went the knife, along, down, back. Lee ScoresbyÃ¢â¬â¢s ghost looked through and saw a wide, quiet prairie under a brilliant moon, so very like his own homeland that he thought heÃ¢â¬â¢d been blessed. Will leapt across the clearing and seized the nearest daemon while Lyra scooped up the other. And even in that horrible urgency, even at that moment of utmost peril, each of them felt the same little shock of excitement: for Lyra was holding WillÃ¢â¬â¢s daemon, the nameless wildcat, and Will was carrying Pantalaimon. They tore their glance away from each otherÃ¢â¬â¢s eyes. Ã¢â¬Å"Good-bye, Mr. Scoresby!Ã¢â¬ Lyra cried, looking around for him. Ã¢â¬Å"I wish Ã¢â¬â oh, thank you, thank you Ã¢â¬â good-bye!Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Good-bye, my dear child Ã¢â¬â good-bye, Will Ã¢â¬â go well!Ã¢â¬ Lyra scrambled through, but Will stood still and looked into the eyes of his fatherÃ¢â¬â¢s ghost, brilliant in the shadows. Before he left him, there was something he had to say. Will said to his fatherÃ¢â¬â¢s ghost, Ã¢â¬Å"You said I was a warrior. You told me that was my nature, and I shouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t argue with it. Father, you were wrong. I fought because I had to. I canÃ¢â¬â¢t choose my nature, but I can choose what I do. And I will choose, because now IÃ¢â¬â¢m free.Ã¢â¬ His fatherÃ¢â¬â¢s smile was full of pride and tenderness. Ã¢â¬Å"Well done, my boy. Well done indeed,Ã¢â¬ he said. Will couldnÃ¢â¬â¢t see him anymore. He turned and climbed through after Lyra. And now that their purpose was achieved, now the children had found their daemons and escaped, the dead warriors allowed their atoms to relax and drift apart, at long, long last. Out of the little grove, away from the baffled Specters, out of the valley, past the mighty form of his old companion the armor-clad bear, the last little scrap of the consciousness that had been the aeronaut Lee Scoresby floated upward, just as his great balloon had done so many times. Untroubled by the flares and the bursting shells, deaf to the explosions and the shouts and cries of anger and warning and pain, conscious only of his movement upward, the last of Lee Scoresby passed through the heavy clouds and came out under the brilliant stars, where the atoms of his beloved daemon, Hester, were waiting for him. How to cite The Amber Spyglass Chapter 31 AuthorityÃ¢â¬â¢s End, Essay examples
Saturday, May 2, 2020
Question: Discuss about the Relative Ineffectiveness Of Criminal Network. Answer: Powers of Arrest The Criminal law of Singapore is belongs to the common law system, which sets the principle of the criminal law system. It also explained the common elements and penalties for common criminal offenses. The common criminal offenses like thefts, homicides, and cheatings are punishable under the Penal Code. When a person is found to commit such offense under the Penal Code, the government has taken the liability to found the issues, investigate and arrest the person. An arrest is an act of depriving people of liberty for the prevention of crime and proceeds for the investigation purpose (Sso.agc.gov.sg 2018). The police and other relevant officers have right to arrest a person with or without notice. When a person has enough reasonable ground for committing an offense or guilty, he or she may be arrested by them. A citizen can arrest a person on the reasonable grounds of committing any offenses. According to the Penal Code of Singapore, it is conducted with the criminal offenses. There are other laws and statues like Arms Offences Act, Kidnapping Act, Vandalism Act and Misuse of Drugs Act, which are conducted with the Criminal offenses (Worrall 2014). The process of Arrest The Criminal Procedure Code of Singapore has been defined the arrest, bail, and process to compel appearance in Part VI. A person can be arrested by the Police or by the enforcement agencies like Corrupt Practices Investigation Bureau (CPIB), Commercial Affairs Department (CAD), Central Narcotics Bureau (CNB) and Immigration Checkpoints Authority (ICA). The police force of Singapore has enough power where they can arrest someone without any notice obtaining from the authority of the Court. The Singapore government has provided enough powers to the police authority that without a warrant or Courts written permission, they can arrest the offender (Worrall 2014). The person who is not a police officer or relevant authority has rights to arrest the offender and handover the arrested person to a police officer or taken to a police station. The citizens who will arrest the offender while committing the offence is allowed to defend the body or property of him or others against harm, without fear of reprisal from the law. The Arrestable Offences There are several offenses can be committed when the offender will be recognized for committing the arrestable offenses. The offenses, which are arrestable, referred in the Third Column of the First Schedule of the Criminal Procedure Code (CPC) (Sso.agc.gov.sg 2018). Those arrestable offenses are: Theft Assault or uses of Criminal force Impersonation of a public servant Cheating Criminal intimidation Criminal Breach of trust Rioting Robbery Extortion Affray, Driving rashly or negligently Wrongful restraint or confinement Rape Dishonestly eating of the stolen property Sexual assault by penetration without consent Trafficking Consumption of drugs Offences under the Vandalism Act Offences under the Computer Misuse and Cybersecurity Act According to the above list of the alleged offenses, the police officer or citizen can arrest the offender. If any of the cases involved with the non-arrestable offense, then the police will file a Magistrates Complaint at the State Courts Crime Registry. In this matter, the police never arrest that person without a warrant notice (Sso.agc.gov.sg 2018). Police arrest procedure in Singapore According to the above list of offenses, the police can arrest a person with or without the warrant. When the police officer has suspected the person, who is committing a dangerous offense, can investigate the issues and provide reports to the authentic authority. The police can use reasonable forces to make an arrest. While in the case of voluntarily causing hurt, the police are subjected to investigate the issues before arrested the person. According to the Section 83 of the Criminal Procedure Code, a police or relevant authority can arrest a women offender. A woman is only allowed to arrest a women offender according to the section 83 of Criminal Procedure Code (Sso.agc.gov.sg 2018). Arrest without a warrant According to the section 64 of the Criminal Procedure Code, the police may arrest a person without a warrant when he or she is found to commit an offense or suspect for involvement with the arrestable offenses. According to such reasonable grounds, the police can arrest the person without a warrant (Owusu-Bempah 2016). According to the above-mentioned grounds, the arrest can be processed. Section 65 of the Criminal Procedure Code has legislated that if any person denied providing his or her identity, which includes the name and address as per the demand of the police officers, then the police officer can arrest the person without a warrant (Sso.agc.gov.sg 2018). However, the arrested person can be detained in the custody only for 48 hours as per the provision of section 68 of Criminal Procedure Code (Sso.agc.gov.sg 2018). Arrest with a warrant According to the section 69 of Criminal Procedure Code, when a person has committed an arrestable offense, the police or respective law enforcement officer or agency can issue a warrant from the court to arrest him or her (Sso.agc.gov.sg 2018). While in the cases of causing hurt, it is necessary to investigate the issues and then the report will be issued for the warrant. After arresting the person, he or she must be produced to the court without any delay. According to the nature of the offense, the offender can ask for bail. Arrest by the civilian According to the provision of Penal Code, the section 66 of the Criminal Procedure Code, has legislated that a civilian has right to arrest an offender who has committed the offense as per the above list of offenses (Sso.agc.gov.sg 2018). The citizens who will arrest the offender while committing the offence is allowed to defend the body or property of him or others against harm, without fear of reprisal from the law. However, after the person was arrested, he or she must be informed the grounds for the arrest and produced to the court without any delay. Every offender has rights to consult with a legal practitioner. After the person was arrested, he or she was taken to the police headquarter where the other investigation will be processed (Owusu-Bempah 2016). The personal belongings will be surrendered to the police. He or she may be taken for the first court appearance and apply for the process of bail. If the bail is not granted by the court then, the proper investigation will be processed and the charges will be convicted according to the nature of the case (Worrall 2014). Reference Duijn, P.A., Kashirin, V. and Sloot, P.M., 2014. The relative ineffectiveness of criminal network disruption. Scientific reports, 4, p.4238. Owusu-Bempah, A., 2016. Defendant participation in the criminal process. Taylor Francis. Peak, K.J. and Madensen, T.D., 2018. Introduction to criminal justice: Practice and process. Sage Publications. Ronel, N. and Segev, D., 2014. Positive criminology in practice. International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology, 58(11), pp.1389-1407. Schmalleger, F., Donaldson, S., Kashiwahara, K., Koppal, T., Chase, S., Brown, A., Jarriel, T. and Marash, D., 2014. Criminal justice today. Prentice Hall. Sso.agc.gov.sg. (2018). Criminal Procedure Code - Singapore Statutes Online. [online] Available at: https://sso.agc.gov.sg/Act/CPC2010?ProvIds=P1VI-#pr87- [Accessed 12 Jan. 2018]. Worrall, J.L., 2014. Criminal procedure: from first contact to appeal. Pearson Higher Ed.